The following web sites, books, and articles may be helpful
and informative whether you are a member of
the public looking for information on related topics, or a professional
in the fields of education or mental health. Each link
will open in a new window.
- The Council for Exceptional Children
(CEC) is the largest international professional organization dedicated
to improving educational outcomes for individuals with exceptionalities,
students with disabilities, and/or the gifted. CEC advocates for appropriate
governmental policies, sets professional standards, provides continual
professional development, advocates for newly and historically underserved
individuals with exceptionalities, and helps professionals obtain conditions
and resources necessary for effective professional practice. www.cec.sped.org
- The National Association of Special
Education Teachers (NASET) is a national membership organization
dedicated to rendering all possible support and assistance to those
preparing for or teaching in the field of special education. NASET
was founded to promote the profession of special education teachers
and to provide a national forum for their ideas. www.naset.org.
- CARF (Commission on Accreditation
of Rehabilitation Facilities) is an independent, nonprofit
provides accreditation in the human services field - focusing on
the areas of rehabilitation, employment and community, child and family,
and aging services. Their standards
are rigorous, so those services that meet them are among the best available.
The CARF web site contains information for professionals and organizations
who wish to become accredited, as well as a search feature for locating
accredited service providers. www.carf.org
- JCAHO (Joint Commission
on Accreditation for Healthcare Organizations) The Joint Commission
is an independent, not-for-profit organization, established more than
50 years ago. Joint Commission evaluates the quality and safety of care
for more than 15,000 health care organizations. To maintain and earn
accreditation, organizations must have an extensive on-site review by
a team of Joint Commission health care professionals, at least once every
three years. The web site contains a search facility for locating accredited
organizations, information on becoming accredited, as well as extensive
news and links for the public and professionals in the field. www.jcaho.org
- Child Welfare League of
in collaboration with the Federation of Families for Children's Mental
Health (FFCMH), serves
as the Coordinating Center for the three-year Best Practices in Behavior
Support and Intervention Project. The project is designed to reduce the
use of restraint and seclusion in seven demonstration sites across the
country by improving the training and supervision of staff who work directly
with children and youth. Their web site contains clear and impartial summaries
of the standards, definitions and policies covering child restraint, state-by-state.
To view the behavior support and intervention standards and definitions
for your state, visit their page at: http://www.cwla.org/programs/behavior/factsheets.htm.
- 04/28/2005: Safer
Restraints In Group Homes? This online article by Heather
Vogell describes how improper use of physical restraint resulted in the
deaths of two Carolinas children in 2003-2004, and what the states of North
and South Carolina are considering in terms of changes to state laws.
Article copyright © Kathi Stringer and Respective Authors, posted
- 01/16/2005: Millions
wasted. The cost? Kids' lives A Charlotte Observer newspaper
article series investigates the laws and regulations of North Carolina
covering children in the care of group and foster homes, and how inadequate
training resulted in the death of a North Carolina child. Article by
Pam Kelley and Eric Frazier for the Charlotte
Observer, copyright © 2005 Knight Ridder,
all rights reserved.
Printed Books and Articles / Recommended Reading:
- Allan, B. (1998). Holding Back, restraint rarely & safely. Bristol; Lucky
- American Academy of Pediatrics (1997). The use of physical restraint
interventions for children and adolescents in the acute care setting. Pediatrics,
- Frey, K. S., Hirschstein, M. K., & Guzzo, B. A. (2000). Second Step:
Preventing aggression by promoting social competence. Journal of Emotional
and Behavioral Disorders, 8, 102-112.
- Huckshorn, K. A. (2004). Reducing Seclusion and Restraint Use in Mental
Health Settings. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, vol. 42, No.9, 22-31.
- Hyman, I. A., & Perone, D.C. (1998). The other side of school violence:
Educator policies and practices that may contribute to student behavior.
Journal of School Psychology, 36, 7-27.
- Morrison, G. M., & Skiba, R. (2001). Predicting violence from school
misbehavior: Promises and perils. Psychology in the Schools, 38, 173-184.
- Paterson, B., & Leadbetter, D. (1999). Managing Physical Violence. In
Turnbull, J. & Paterson, B. (Eds.) Aggression and Violence: Approaches
to Effective Management. Basingstoke: MacMillan.
- Taxis, J. C. (2002). Ethics and praxis: Alternative strategies to physical
restraint and seclusion in a psychiatric setting. Issues in Mental Health
Nursing, 23, 157-170.