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The following web sites, books, and articles may be helpful and informative whether you are a member of the public looking for information on related topics, or a professional in the fields of education or mental health. Each link will open in a new window.

Web Sites:

  • The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) is the largest international professional organization dedicated to improving educational outcomes for individuals with exceptionalities, students with disabilities, and/or the gifted. CEC advocates for appropriate governmental policies, sets professional standards, provides continual professional development, advocates for newly and historically underserved individuals with exceptionalities, and helps professionals obtain conditions and resources necessary for effective professional practice. www.cec.sped.org
  • The National Association of Special Education Teachers (NASET) is a national membership organization dedicated to rendering all possible support and assistance to those preparing for or teaching in the field of special education. NASET was founded to promote the profession of special education teachers and to provide a national forum for their ideas. www.naset.org.
  • CARF (Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities) is an independent, nonprofit organization. CARF provides accreditation in the human services field - focusing on the areas of rehabilitation, employment and community, child and family, and aging services. Their standards are rigorous, so those services that meet them are among the best available. The CARF web site contains information for professionals and organizations who wish to become accredited, as well as a search feature for locating accredited service providers. www.carf.org
  • JCAHO (Joint Commission on Accreditation for Healthcare Organizations) The Joint Commission is an independent, not-for-profit organization, established more than 50 years ago. Joint Commission evaluates the quality and safety of care for more than 15,000 health care organizations. To maintain and earn accreditation, organizations must have an extensive on-site review by a team of Joint Commission health care professionals, at least once every three years. The web site contains a search facility for locating accredited organizations, information on becoming accredited, as well as extensive news and links for the public and professionals in the field. www.jcaho.org
  • Child Welfare League of America (CWLA), in collaboration with the Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health (FFCMH), serves as the Coordinating Center for the three-year Best Practices in Behavior Support and Intervention Project. The project is designed to reduce the use of restraint and seclusion in seven demonstration sites across the country by improving the training and supervision of staff who work directly with children and youth. Their web site contains clear and impartial summaries of the standards, definitions and policies covering child restraint, state-by-state. To view the behavior support and intervention standards and definitions for your state, visit their page at: http://www.cwla.org/programs/behavior/factsheets.htm.

Online Articles:

  • 04/28/2005: Safer Restraints In Group Homes? This online article by Heather Vogell describes how improper use of physical restraint resulted in the deaths of two Carolinas children in 2003-2004, and what the states of North and South Carolina are considering in terms of changes to state laws. Article copyright © Kathi Stringer and Respective Authors, posted at www.toddlertime.com.
  • 01/16/2005: Millions wasted. The cost? Kids' lives A Charlotte Observer newspaper article series investigates the laws and regulations of North Carolina covering children in the care of group and foster homes, and how inadequate training resulted in the death of a North Carolina child. Article by Pam Kelley and Eric Frazier for the Charlotte Observer, copyright © 2005 Knight Ridder, all rights reserved.

Printed Books and Articles / Recommended Reading:

  • Allan, B. (1998). Holding Back, restraint rarely & safely. Bristol; Lucky Duck Publishing.
  • American Academy of Pediatrics (1997). The use of physical restraint interventions for children and adolescents in the acute care setting. Pediatrics, 99, 497-498.
  • Frey, K. S., Hirschstein, M. K., & Guzzo, B. A. (2000). Second Step: Preventing aggression by promoting social competence. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 8, 102-112.
  • Huckshorn, K. A. (2004). Reducing Seclusion and Restraint Use in Mental Health Settings. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, vol. 42, No.9, 22-31.
  • Hyman, I. A., & Perone, D.C. (1998). The other side of school violence: Educator policies and practices that may contribute to student behavior. Journal of School Psychology, 36, 7-27.
  • Morrison, G. M., & Skiba, R. (2001). Predicting violence from school misbehavior: Promises and perils. Psychology in the Schools, 38, 173-184.
  • Paterson, B., & Leadbetter, D. (1999). Managing Physical Violence. In Turnbull, J. & Paterson, B. (Eds.) Aggression and Violence: Approaches to Effective Management. Basingstoke: MacMillan.
  • Taxis, J. C. (2002). Ethics and praxis: Alternative strategies to physical restraint and seclusion in a psychiatric setting. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 23, 157-170.